Project for Integrative Health and the Triple Aim (PIHTA) - Knowledge Base

White Papers Associated with Integrative Professions and Organizations

Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (AOM) in the United States
Braverman C , Baker C, Harris R

Presents an overview of AOM including the history, educational requirements, and safety and a review of cost effective studies, best areas for AOM integration into allopathic care and highlights from numerous studies on 10 varied disease states.

Economic Evaluation in Acupuncture: Past and Future
Jabbour M, Sapko MT, Miller DW, Weiss LM, Gross M

Overview of acupuncture in the US including utilization and status of third party reimbursement. Also includes review of literature with broad classification of cost studies, reviewing the history of such studies in acupuncture research. Includes summary table highlighting outcomes for each study included.

Integrative Health and Medicine: Today's Answer to Affordable Healthcare
Erica Oberg, Mimi Guarneri, Patricia Herman, Taylor Walsh, Alyssa Wostrel

This sixteen page booklet released by the Integrative Healthcare Policy Consortium (IHPC) provides a comprehensive overview of the cost-saving benefits of the integrative professions. The report highlights studies showing the benefits of prevention in naturopathic care and midwifery and includes figures and logic for using least invasive methods when treating chronic pain through the use of acupuncture, yoga and massage. Compared to conventional medicine, chiropractic care is shown to reduce pain while simultaneously reducing health care costs . The report concludes with a short synopsis on worksite wellness programs, integrative practice models, holistic nursing and implications for health insurers.

Outcomes-Based Contracting™: The Value-Based Approach for Optimal Health with Chiropractic Services
Nayer C, Sherman B, Mahoney J

Describes how chiropractic care can contribute to outcomes based patient care. Summarizes cost effectiveness of chiropractic intervention for neck and low back pain, as well as overall costs surrounding these conditions. Provides case studies where cost savings have been realized by including chiropractic care, and a framework for the decision process to integrate chiropractic care.

Accountable Care Organizations Optimize Outcomes, Cost Savings And Patient Satisfaction With Chiropractic Care
Foundation for Chiropractic Progress

Explores how Chiropractic doctors can play an essential role in the ACO Care Continuum specifically related to low back and neck pain. Mutiple studies comparing chiropractic care to conventional care are referenced to make the case that chiropractic care is one of the least invasive, least dangerous, and cost-effective disciplines in the treatment of neck and low back pain.

Naturopathic Medicine Lowers Health Care Costs
American Association of Naturopathic Physicians' 2014 2-page fact sheet on cost-effectiveness of naturopathic medicine.

Chiropractic Evidence Summary
Christine Goertz

Four page overview for chiropractic students highlights the clinical outcomes for low back pain, neck pain and headache. It refers to cost saving advantages of chiropractic care when compared to conventional care and surgical procedures.

Midwives and Mothers in Action Campaign
National Association of Certified Professional Midwives

One page financial snapshot of the findings from the economic cost and benefit analysis of the Midwivery Licensure and Discipline Program in Washington State.

Workplace Wellness Programs Can Generate Savings
Baicker K, Cutler D, Song Z

Meta-Analysis of workplace based wellness and prevention programs. The primary outcomes analyzed were health costs and absenteeism. Both cost categories showed decreased costs per dollar invested in the programs ($3.27, $2.73 respectively).

The Efficacy and Cost Effectiveness of Integrative Medicine A Review of the Medical and Corporate Literature
Guarneri E, Horrigan BJ, Pechura CM

A review of integrative medicine that proposes three distinct areas for cost savings via integrative care. These include lifestyle change programs, integrative care for depression, and prevention/wellness programs. Provides examples from varied stakeholders for each area..

Cost Effectiveness of Naturopathic Care for Chronic Low Back Pain
Patricia Herman, Orest Szczurko, Kieran Cooley, Edward Mills

Results from this economic evaluation suggest that naturopathic care for the treatment of chronic low back pain is more cost-effective than standardized physiotherapy program from societal, employer and patient perspectives. Those in the naturopathic care group showed an improvement in health related QoLs and a reduction in adjucntive care and absenteeism when compared to the control treatment.

The Economic Evaluation of Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Setareh Tais, Erica Oberg

This article provides an overview of some of the important studies examining the cost-effectiveness of CAM and naturopathic medicine. It highlights conditions such as cardiovascular disease, low back pain, fibromyalgia, chronic bowel disorders while also exploring savings realized through insurance programs and natural health products.

Cost-Effectiveness of Chiropractic Care
Michigan Chiropractic Association

Summary sheet of articles discussing the cost-effectiveness of chiropractic care.

The Value and Efficacy of Massage Therapy in Integrated Health Care
American Massage Therapy Association

This extremely thorough report prepared by the American Massage Therapy Association provides a detailed section on the economic value of massage therapy. Findings show that insurance coverage for massage therapy can result in tremendous cost-saving advantages for private insurers.